Dating two tier affiliate
The Hie (Hiyoshi) shrine rose to national importance in the 7th century when Emperor Tenji 天智 moved the capital to Outsu and invited the kami (Oumononushi no kami 大物主神) to act as the guardian deity of the new imperial residence. These three Kami are Omiya (大宮), Ninomiya (二宮), and Shōshinshi (聖真子). Tientai (天台山, literally “heavenly terraced mountain”). This name, moreover, is attributed to the mountain’s location below a three-star constellation north of the Big Dipper in Ursa Major.
The shrine and its affiliate shrines (about 3,800 nationwide today) then became intimately linked to the Tendai Buddhist sect at Mt. The ideograms for MOUNTAIN and KING both reflect the syncretism of the Tendai tradition and the importance of the number three in Tendai traditions. The three stars are known as the Three Terraces or Three Platforms (三台, Jp.
By the time Buddhism reaches Japan (mid-6th century AD), the monkey and monkey lore are already common elements in Buddhist legend, art, and iconography in India, China, and mainland Asia (see Monkey Page Two). Sannō’s messenger (tsukai 使い) and avatar (gongen 権現) is the monkey.
Thereafter, monkey worship in Japan grows greatly in popularity, especially among practitioners of Taoist Kōshin rites introduced from China and among followers of Tendai Shintō-Buddhism, the latter centered around the syncretic Tendai shrine-temple multiplex located at Mt. Some scholars believe the famous three monkeys -- speak no evil, hear no evil, see no evil -- originated in Japan in association with the Mt. The Sannō deity is broadly conceived, for Sannō actually represents three Buddhas (Shaka, Yakushi, and Amida), who in turn represent the three most important Shintō KAMI (deities) of Hie Shrine.
This all supports the notion (still contested) that the three-monkey motif originated in Japan in association with Mt. Monkey worship in Japan peaked in the Edo Era, and has declined significantly since then.
Even so, the legacy of monkey faith is easily spotted in modern Japan.
The latter word means to “dispel, punch out, push away, beat away." According to the legends of Japan’s Mt.
According to Chinese geomantic views then popular at the Japanese court (early Heian Era), Kyoto was thought to be particularly vulnerable to evil influences from the northeast.
Literally “pillar-supporting monkey.” The buildings at some Hie shrines in Japan use monkey carvings to hold up the beams (see photo at right).
These pillar monkeys reflect the simian’s traditional role in Japan as protector against evil. The Sannō deity is broadly conceived, for Sannō actually represents three Buddhas (Shaka, Yakushi, and Amida), who in turn represent the three most important Shintō KAMI (deities) of Hie Shrine.
In Chinese thought, the northeast quarter is considered to be particularly inauspicious.
The northeast direction is known as the “demon gate,” which can be loosely translated as the place where “demons gather and enter.” This belief was imported by the Japanese and is referred to as In Japan, the monkey’s role in guarding against demons originates from the Japanese word for monkey (猿, pronounced saru), which is a homonym for the Japanese word “expel” (去る, also pronounced saru).
Hiei, the protective monkey is named MASARU 神猿 (マサル).